The study on the paradoxical effect of nature for epistemic theories of truth, is focused on resolving natural cognitive paradoxes of empirically observed natural phenomena. This is through identifying the vortical fractals of unisonal vortex in the empirically observed natural phenomena based on the UVS model for their analyses in the conceptual frameworks of UVS, and thus understands the mechanism of natural negations on how the delusions are manifested to render cognitive paradoxes for their apparent observations.
Heuristically, this can elevate the perceptions of an observer for the natural phenomena to their transcendental levels to know how the cognitive paradoxes are counterintuitive, how they can mislead people with their delusively inversed illusions, and to simply understand fundamentally on why and how such naturally negated observations have had led to their cognitive paradox fallacies.
The delusional observation of a rising Sun, is paradoxically a cognitive contradiction of its actuality as a result of its naturally obscured delusory circumstances that negates in a topsy-turvy manner.
Most of us now can comprehend without a slightest doubt in general acceptance that the spheroidal Earth rotates, and it revolves around the Sun. However, for millenniums in the geocentric era, the majority of people from all over the whole wide world in its illusion of knowing, were generally misled by its paradoxical effect that negates to render its delusion of sunrise to cause its cognitive paradox fallacy.
The illusion of knowing in a delusion is apparently real in its cognitive paradox.
A paradoxical effect can consistently fool us with its cognitive paradox in its state of delusion.
With manifold negating factors that are naturally manifested in the perceptions of the typical human observers, the underlying paradoxical effect causes natural phenomena to be intermingled with multitudinous cognitive paradoxes for their localized views, and thus these would always render as wonders to the negated observers under all sorts of delusive circumstances. These wonders are rendered in their delusively inversed illusions that are caused by their delusions with their cognitive paradoxes, and therefore they are counterintuitive, mysterious, confusing, and paradoxically misleading.
Paradoxically, the Sun does not rise in the east like it apparently seems to be, it is not stationary nor the center of the universe like it had been believed to be so with the putative laws of physics, and it is also not the central of the Solar System like it is being thought as with conventional wisdom; nothing is further from the truth than these false facts of past and present that were conceived in all sorts of delusion.
See a UVS topic on "Sunspot" that explicates on the central of the Solar System, which also elaborates on how more than twenty mysterious phenomena of the Sun were thus resolved with the UVS methodology. See also UVS topics on "Allegory of a flat Earth event" that elaborates on an invoked transcendental perception for resolving its cognitive paradox, and "Critiques of the scientific method - Addressing the cognitive paradox fallacies" that elaborates on how we could be misled by some deeply rooted hard-core beliefs.
Without realizing the cognitive paradoxes that negate to cause delusions in the observable universe, the paradoxical effect of nature has had fooled even the very brilliant people.
The realization of a cognitive paradox, awakens to its transcendental level that can elucidate its delusion.
With the delusion of a natural phenomenon elucidated, it reveals the negation of its manifested paradoxical effect that causes its cognitive paradox.
When one looks into the night sky to observe celestial objects, negated by limited speed of light, all things observed are images of the past. The nearest celestial object as observed is the image of the Moon that is about one plus second ago, the Sun as observed is its image about eight minutes and twenty seconds ago at where it was, the nearest star Proxima Centauri as observed is its image of more than four years ago, the nearest spiral galaxy Andromeda as observed is its image of approximately two and a half million years ago, and a most distance galaxy Abell 1835 IR1916 as observed is its image of more than thirteen billion years ago. In real time, all these celestial objects would have had moved to the locations according to their trajectories; they are not at the locations where they are apparently appearing to be. Also, the first supernova caught in the act of its runaway explosion on January 9th, 2008, labeled as SN 2008D, was in fact an event that had occurred approximately 88 million years ago from that moment when it was being observed from Earth.
“Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better.” - Albert Einstein
See a UVS subtopic on “The cognitive paradox fallacy in cosmic inflation on accelerated expansion of space” that elaborates on how the cognitive paradox of an important modern discovery was resolved.
In nature, the apparently observed natural phenomena that are being paradoxically rendered in all sorts of delusion with their delusively inversed illusions, are aplenty.
With an intuitive-inductive approach for intellectual illuminations in the conceptual frameworks of UVS to analyse apparently observed natural phenomena based on the UVS model, it could elucidate delusions to resolve their cognitive paradoxes by illustrating the underlying structures and mechanisms of the natural phenomena with their hypothetical constructs. And these would lead to their immediate enlightenments with pristine clarity that have very profound resolving capability for enigmatic natural phenomena; the enigmas of enigmatic natural phenomena could be elucidated by being enlightened in an awakened manner through knowing the paradoxical effect of nature that negates to cause the circumstances of their delusions.
Enlightenment on the paradoxical effect of nature enlightens.
This thus renders a holistic view of the actual scenarios with pristine clarity, and it could therefore trigger an explosion of discoveries. This manner of acquiring an essential knowledge that is required for breaking through, is not deduced directly from engagement in a meticulous investigating and reasoning process, it is induced by enlightenment.
For the discovery of Archimedes' Principle, a breakthrough was made while Archimedes was taking a bath, he noticed that the level of the water in the tub rose as he got in, and realized that this effect could be used to determine the volume of the crown for a task he has undertaken at then. For practical purposes water is incompressible, so the submerged crown would displace an amount of water equal to its own volume. By dividing the weight of the crown by the volume of water displaced, the density of the crown could be obtained, and this was an intractable problem previously. Archimedes is said to have been so eager to share his realization that he leapt out of his bathtub and ran through the streets of Syracuse naked in a rush of jubilation proclaiming "Eureka!". Notice how the breakthrough idea had popped into his awareness in an instance on a subtle hint that is usually overlooked in a common everyday event.
“The only real valuable thing is intuition.” - Albert Einstein
Intuition is a cognitive function that has the ability to acquire knowledge without concious reasoning, and the knowledge induced by intuition in visual thinking with pristine clarity, has the element of surprise in an awakened state with a rush of jubilation for its enlightenment. By making inquiry rationally, and has the intuition on the actuality of an enigmatic natural phenomenon, it could lead to the enlightenment that would elucidate the delusion for resolving its cognitive paradox to solve the misconception, mystery, or anomaly of its apparent observation.
To understand how the revolutionary discoveries of UVS were made, one has to undergo the enlightenment experience himself. This can begin by understanding the abstracts on “The UVS model”, and “The UVS worldview”, and then practice it on those enigmatic natural phenomena with resolved cognitive paradoxes, so as to understand the paradoxical effect of nature that renders all sorts of delusive circumstances in a typical topsy-turvy manner for their apparent observations.
By knowing the paradoxical effect of nature, it enlightens on how nature does wonders in a delusory inverse manner.
The awakening from a delusion is enlightenment; awakened from a delusion is enlightening.
After addressing a cognitive paradox, and at the moment of being snapped out of its delusion in its awakening, it could intuitively resolve its cognitive paradox for solving the misconception, mystery, or anomaly of an apparent observation. Thereafter, other apparently related enigmatic natural phenomena could thus be further explored in a logical reflecting manner to visualize in the conceptual frameworks of UVS, which can be investigated by addressing their paradoxical effects for resolving their cognitive paradoxes with comparative analyses in the generalization of a nested vortical paradigm that is scalable with the UVS model.
Essentially, this is an epistemic process with positive feedback loops for the enlightenment on those natural phenomena where their apparent observations, have had appeared to be enigmatic as a result of their cognitive paradoxes that render the delusively inversed illusions in a typical topsy-turvy manner.
“Imagination is more important than knowledge.” - Albert Einstein
Being enlightened in the conceptual frameworks of UVS, has an awakening effect on understanding how nature could delusively render those natural phenomena in a delusory inverse manner. This is by realizing the paradoxical effect of nature so as to resolve all sorts of cognitive paradox that are typically rendered in a topsy-turvy manner, and by knowing the shortcomings in ourselves that would cause all sorts of misconception for the observations of natural phenomena. This has had led to the revelations for different types of unisonal vortex and their substructures in different forms with different mediums of viscous matter, uncovered one by one through unfolding the delusions in directly associated or remotely related natural phenomena of different scale levels, which evidently lead from one to another in their comparative studies that are consistently based on the UVS model.
With the enlightenments, it can be incredibly easy to understanding the actualities of the apparently observed natural phenomena, but paradoxically, under all sorts of negated circumstances, the state of such enlightenments can be incredibly hard to attain.
Despite the paradoxical effect of nature could be explicitly understood, under all sorts of negated circumstances, its essence could be extremely difficult to grasp. The experience for acquiring this tacit knowledge, is similar for anyone who tries to see the illusionary 3D image in a stereogram picture, and is not familiar with how to view it.
For the application of the UVS methodology on any enigmatic natural phenomenon, first forms its hypothesis with the UVS model, then contemplates it with the intuitive-inductive approach in the conceptual frameworks of UVS, and then test the aroused intuition with the UVS' theory of knowledge for its criteria of truth to evaluate its accuracy. Apply necessary discretions appropriately to check with qualitative rigor for cogency, and also discreetly avoid the pitfalls of self-fulfilling prophecy.
It would be an awe-inspiring experience in an awakened stage of enlightenment when one begins to realize how a natural wonder actually works with its delusion elucidated, and with its epiphany there are joys in finding things out. It is mesmerizing to learn from nature, which could wake up all his cells to drive him to dig up every information to understand any related working principles, and turn every stone to find answers that could lead to evidence for supporting or against the discovery of its actuality. After getting the hang of this tacit knowledge, and by applying its epistemic process with the UVS' philosophy of science, perhaps one might be able to make new discoveries in the field of his expertise on the case studies he aspires on.
“We make our world significant by the courage of our questions and by the depth of our answers.” - Carl Sagan
Under paradoxical circumstances, when interpreting the actuality of a natural phenomenon as apparently observed, we could always be fooled by our preconceived ideas that innately arise with our inherent shortcomings. What we have believed as a truth that refers to reality is one issue, what is the truth is another issue. And what we thought nature was doing as apparently observed, is often delusionary inversed from what nature in its actuality is doing in a natural phenomenon that is paradoxically rendered.
The paradoxical effect of nature would always cause such natural phenomena to be counterintuitive for the negated observer; the actualities for such natural phenomena are always obscured in delusions that would negate our perception to mislead us. Our awareness with preconceived ideas in fixed mindset is usually focused to only perceive what we have subconsciously prepared to accept, hence we are always misled by the paradoxical effect with all sorts of delusion in topsy-turvy realms.
See an awareness test video clip to understand how something so distinct within the field of direct vision can be completely overlooked right in front of our nose. See also an excerpt from "Cargo Cult Science" by Richard Feynman.
“The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education.” - Albert Einstein
Always examine ourselves inward, the shortcomings such as flaws and limits are absolutely within us. And as a result of our limited bandwidths in many aspects, the actualities of naturally negated natural phenomena are therefore not apparent to us. Don't be stubborn with our established concepts or ideas, don't condition our thought with our wish for how should the natural events are being naturally done, don't be impatient when fathoming an enigmatic natural phenomenon, don't confine the abilities of nature in our thoughts, don't be denial with what nature is revealing to us, and most of all, don't let our ego rule.
The hardest part is with the egoistic attitude in us that would hold us from truly letting go preconceived ideas, and these would block us from any opportunity at all for resolving the cognitive paradox of any natural phenomenon that is paradoxically rendered; our ego would negate our intuition to prevent us from being able to realize the paradoxes perceived in delusional circumstances. Any of such deep-rooted perceptions could only lead us to visualize any natural phenomenon with the confirmation bias of our preconceived ideas, caused by how we have anticipated a preferred outcome that subconsciously would satisfy our deep-seated belief. Thus, our perception would always end up regressing inside paradoxical realms to let us firmly believe that all things are thoroughly investigated, fully covered, and correctly understood. And with such illusions of knowing that are asserted with their preconceived ideas, we can perpetually fool ourselves in all sorts of delusion.
“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.” - Stephen Hawking
The more we think we know in anything, the least we would explore outside our established understanding at the ease of our comfort zone, and the more hindrance we would have with our arrogant when fathoming any natural phenomenon for its actuality.
“The first principle is that you must not fool yourself -- and you are the easiest person to fool.” - Richard Feynman
The next thing is to be so humble and becomes hollowed out in preparedness, and accepts that we are actually ignorance of it.
In the contemplating process, have integrity and be absolutely honest with ourselves on any finding. And without a slightest attachment to our thoughts on any finding, have perseverance and stay focused. Put our preconceived ideas aside and free our imagination, surrender our rigid mind to our intuition, do not expect anything but be opened to everything including contradictions. And be malleable, then let the imagination run, let it organise, and let it show.
“The only true wisdom is knowing you know nothing.” - Socrates
To fathom any natural phenomenon with the UVS model in its conceptual frameworks, all other preconceived concepts have to be trashed out until we are hollowed out enough so as to become receptive to new ideas without prejudice, so that we would not reject and can thus visualize and contemplate on any inspiration that could be entirely different from what was firmly believed. This is no mean feat, and our ego need to be tamed and properly dealt with. Also, when trying to really let go any deeply rooted hard-core belief in its disbelief, one might emotionally undergo extreme traumatic mental experiences, such as stress, denial, disillusioned, anguish, depression, and felt lost; in cognitive dissonance it can be very agonizing to face a total collapse of our hard-core belief.
See a UVS topic on "Logic and belief systems" that elaborates on the causalities for all sorts of science delusion.
Nature could render us the inspirations for the insights only when we are hollowed out in preparedness, and has become truly humble with a pure intention to know. And to be truly humble for contemplating on natural phenomena with a pure intention to know, in essence it needs internalized cultivation. This prerequisitely requires us to recognize and know that our hindrances and shortcomings are caused by our inherent limits, and honestly acknowledge that inherently we are cognitively negated ignorant fools.
“Once we accept our limits, we go beyond them.” - Albert Einstein
To resolve an enigmatic natural phenomenon in the conceptual frameworks of UVS, its counterintuitive issue has to be brought to a clear transcendental cognitive awareness with its underlying structure and mechanism perceived with the UVS model, so as to be able to vividly imagine it, conceptually feel it, and intellectually interacts with it to comprehend it intuitively. The key for the enlightenment of an enigmatic natural phenomenon, is to find ways to intuitively fathom with the understandings on the working mechanism of its illustrated structure and mechanism based on the UVS model for resolving its cognitive paradox in the conceptual frameworks of UVS.
Recapitulating with the example for the perception of sunrise, it could be conceptualized to elucidate its delusion by doing the thought experiment to transcendentally visualize how a rotating spheroidal Earth, can render the relative motion illusion of a rising Sun in its delusory localized perception. With this transcendental perception, and thus knows how it paradoxically negates, which is as a result of the Earth's rotating motion that paradoxically appears to the observers to be at rest, it could thus intuitively resolve the cognitive paradox of the apparent observation.
Based on the UVS model, when the perception of an enigmatic natural phenomenon is coherently organized in the conceptual frameworks of UVS, and with pristine clarity in its transcendental visualization, we could be unexpectedly enlightened by an intellectual spark for the elucidation of its delusion, which would resolve the cognitive paradox for solving the misconception, mystery, or anomaly of its apparent observation of the natural phenomenon.
See a UVS subtopic on "The cognitive paradox fallacy in Kepler's laws of planetary motion" that elaborates on how a cognitive paradox of the Solar System was resolved.
Through knowing the paradoxical effect of nature, and based on the UVS model, enlightenments on enigmatic natural phenomena would beget with their illuminations in the conceptual frameworks of UVS.
With this transcendental perspectivalism, the resolving capability is simply profound for enlightening on enigmatic natural phenomena.
Some resonated remarks received that are relevant to Universal Vortical Singularity (aka UVS) on "The paradoxical effect of nature":
“Cognitive paradoxes are events whose subjective reality is overwhelming.” - Neil Vodavzny, 20 Aug 2015.
“UVS is a paradox that will bring another paradigm shift...A giant step toward TOE. ” - James A. Graber (aka Jag of TOEQuest Forum) with twenty-eight years into vortex research, 8th Aug 2012.
“I can hardly wait for you to enlighten the world to a new way of seeing the dynamics of Reality.” - Allen Barrow (aka PoPpAScience of TOEQuest Forum), 17th Oct 2010.
“I once again thank you for being the one that pushed me over the edge from the realm of "Substance", to the realm of "Motion". Studying all the religions, Sciences of Mind , and Sciences of Substance, could not do it for me. Instead it took your theory of the "Vortex" to enlighten me to the fact that it is a, "NON-Substance Something", that is the creator of "Form" and thus, the Universe.” - Allen Barrow (aka PoPpAScience of TOEQuest Forum), 16th Feb 2010.
“An intriguing website full of enlightening concepts and analyses!” - Dr. Wayne Nowland, physicist, researcher, philosopher & author of Interdimensional Science & Philosophy, planned and launched Australia's first AUSSAT communications satellite system, Dec 2009.
“Vincent, I am convinced that UVS would give satisfactory answers to most of the mysteries...” - Dipayan Kar (aka dipayankar of TOEQuest Forum), 20th Sep 2008.
“Objectively speaking, even in its present mostly qualitative form, UVS makes a significant contribution to the discovery of spiral nature of the universe. No person holds a complete truth about the nature of the universe, and UVS brings attention of scientists to an interesting path of solving this very challenging problem.”, “With great respect, Vladimir.” - Dr. Vladimir B. Ginzburg, mathematician, accomplished scientist, author of "Prime Elements of Ordinary Matter, Dark Matter & Dark Energy", "Spiral Grain of the Universe" and several other renowned books such as "Metallurgical Design of Flat Rolled Steels" for applied science, and holds over fifty U.S. and foreign patents, 28th Jun 2009.
“Vincent I think I finally got you; the whole universe is twisted!” - Graham Burnett (aka G_burnett of TOEQuest Forum), 2008.
“OH boyohboyohboy ... Consciousness of natural event, paradoxical from the beginning, paradoxical from reasoning, paradoxical from rationalization, paradoxical from depiction, and on and on the paradoxes go .... even when we say consciousness ends the paradox is it does not, so there will be then ... what? Paradoxes for it all?” - Graham Burnett (aka G_burnett of TOEQuest Forum), 2008.
“It is funny how I did not see it before, the out right dominance of the Vortex phenomena. All the endless studying I have done on so many subjects to do with science, and the best I could see was, spin. Now I see vortices in every thing I see. Its amazing how one can miss something so important. It is great to once again see the workings of the Universe with new eyes.” - Allen Barrow (aka PoPpAScience of TOEQuest Forum), 10th Apr 2008.
illusion of knowing and the illusion of having control
See an externally linked topic on "Illusion of control".
things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity;
Al Nino effect was blamed for a California wildfire that had raged for weeks, and reduced everything to ashes in its wake. In this disaster, thousands of houses were lost, and many firefighters were among those who have perished in this burn of the century. Such an event is usually treated as "Act of God".
Nonetheless, a meticulous investigation suggests there was a more fundamental cause that thus had evolved into this fire monster.In relentless efforts for decades, human have seemed to be able to overcome nature for its spontaneous wildfires. This was by enforcing legislation with strict measures to suppress all fires quickly, made efficient with evolving technologies to effectively control their spread. However, the successful measures for decades had resulted in massive cumulation of combustible materials, heavily stacked by fallen branches, leaves and the likes, layers over layers ladened on over the years.
For this case, it took the awe of nature for us to wake up from this cognitive paradox of our delusion, and realize the real culprit for this burn of the century; our ignorance.
See a news report on "Tsunami Animals: A Sixth Sense?".
Nonetheless, before an earthquake or when a Tsunami has initiated, it is known that the Earth or sea would rumble with low frequencies, and electromagnetic waves emission occurs. It is now known that these infrasound vibrations though are inaudible to the human ears, can be thunderous roars of nature to seismically disturb these creatures on different continents. And the influence of electromagnetic waves emission during the geological event could also had prompted those animals with such sensories to flee; any of these evolved sensory mechanisms could have caused a synchronized reaction for these creatures on different continents to run for their life.
See a UVS topic on "Natural events on Earth with aligned and cross-aligned Solar System objects" that illustrates an externally triggered causality for natural events.
The manner without a solid basis with clear definitions, one can mask his ignorance by cranking up a not falsifiable proposition for any mysterious phenomenon that is apparently inexplicable. In its illusion of knowing, it has the comfort of being at ease, and this can also boost confidence with a sense of superiority in its illusion of having control. This is how one can create an illusion of knowing with an inclination towards a belief that has a higher order type of abstract explanation that reinforces with circular reasoning, and could always assert the mythical belief in the fallacy of affirming the consequent.
There are lots of busted myths for old and new ones alike, however, human psychology tends to hold firmly onto believing in myths.
It is difficult to get a man to understand a simple truth when his pride, faith, or belief depends upon his not understanding it.
“By denying scientific principles, one may maintain any paradox.” - Galileo Galilei
“One can persistently fool himself in a delusion that can paradoxical but consistently asserts
his fallacious belief, and therefore becomes biased for believing what is not true.” - UVS inspired -
Chickens hatch from eggs, but eggs are laid by chickens, making it difficult to say which originally gave rise to the other. To ancient philosophers, the question about the first chicken or egg also evoked the questions of how life and the universe in general began. - Excerpt from Wikipedia on "The chicken or the egg".
Based on the concept of evolution in modern knowledge, through inductive reasoning that macroevolution happens and new animal species can evolve, whatever laid the egg that had hatched into a first distinct chicken, by definition that whatever was not a chicken. The answer to this question according to its specifications, egg definitely had come first before the first chicken could be evolved. Specifically, this egg with an embryo of a chicken that had hatched into a first chicken, was not an egg of chicken. This is the distinction between an egg of a non-chicken, and an egg of a chicken; chicken egg is laid by chicken.
The problems of the chicken and egg issue were caused by its fallacy of definition, which renders its paradox that can invalidate any hypothesis with its circular reasonings. Thus, by denying the antecedent or affirming the consequent, its a posteriori reasoning with circular logic can always be applied to invalidate any hypothesis to illustrate that the paradox could never be solved.
It is illogical to expect a definite answer to be consistence when the questions are put forth in a paradox with ambiguous definitions on the chicken and egg issue; it could never have a definite answer to the non-consistent question. It is illogical to think that by cracking this chicken and egg sequence it should also be able to find the answer for “how life and the universe in general began”, and hence has expected the answer to be something that is more sophisticated and complex. Attached to this notion, simple straight answer that does not fit the bracket would not even be considered as authentic with such fixed mindset.
Even by changing the definitions in any way for this issue, it would still have a precedent and therefore would still have a definite answer to it; an egg laid by a chicken is a chicken egg and this is regardless to whatever it hatches into. Therefore if the question goes “Which came first, the chicken or the chicken egg?”, then the definite answer is chicken had to come first; this is a logically valid answer to the specifically defined question from the evolutionism point of view.
It is true that “At no point was a ‘chicken egg’ created from a distinct ‘non-chicken’ species”, but this argument that was used to maintain the paradox is non sequitur. A “non-chicken” of course could not have laid a “chicken egg”, moreover, the conclusion was unrelated and could not conclude egg did not come first. It merely confuses the issue by contradicting it with a valid proposition that does not address the issue at all; this is a red herring fallacy of ignoratio elenchi. Note: The argument on “At no point was a ‘chicken egg’ created from a distinct ‘non-chicken’ species.” had been removed from an earlier version of "The chicken or the egg?" article from Wikipedia.
With lame logic and moot reasoning that asserts ambiguity, we can persistently confuse and fool ourselves.
Disclaimers: The treatise of Universal Vortical Singularity (UVS) in its epistemological paradigm shift, is fundamentally unconventional. Its hypotheses based on the unheard-of UVS model, are bounded to have shortcomings, loose ends, and errors. Many details and assumptions of its propositions established in the conceptual frameworks of UVS, have yet to be further researched, probed, evaluated, validated, or proven. Its implicit explanations are for casual understanding of the topics presented in the UVS worldview, and any term or statement if offensive in any manner or whatsoever is most regretted. Links to other sites do not imply endorsement of their contents; apply appropriate discretion whenever necessary. Inevitably for whatsoever reasons, some viewing devices at times could experience data corruption for text, disorganized content layouts, missing images, failed animations, and some external links might have had ceased to exist. The presentations of the web pages are not friendly to small mobile devices, it is therefore recommended to accessed and view the UVS contents with a system device that has a larger screen, such as personal computer, android tablet, or iPad. For the best experience to explore UVS, it is better to use a MS Windows based PC or device using Internet Explorer installed with Java that works for its interactive applets. (Such as Java Applet of Moiré pattern, JPL Small-Body Database Browser, and Planet Finder.)
Copyright information: This UVS web site is for non-profit purposes and not for commercial use. Wherever possible, direct credits to the origin of the work or images were provided, be it on fair dealing, with explicit permission from their owners, or the materials were believed to be in the public domain. In instances for which any external material has any issue, kindly advise for its proper.